Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years. Causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or glomerulonephritis, urinary tract infection, exposure to some toxic substances, herbal or some medication. If it is not properly treated, kidney function may reduce overtime leading to end-stage of renal failure which needs hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. The diminished kidney function brings various complications such as water and electrolyte imbalance, anemia and the accumulation of waste products in the body. These symptoms can be controlled and prevented if the patient has been regularly monitored by a specialist.
Bumrungrad International hospital established the Chronic Kidney Disease Program with the main purpose of preventing or delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease and the development of complications.
-Regular assessment of kidney function to prevent any complications from occurring
-Advice about a diet-controlled program from nutritionists specializing in kidney disease
-Instruction for self-care and handbook
-Drug instruction with advice on other medicines or supplements that can damage the kidneys
-Overall health consultation
-Continuous care and assessment from nephrologists and our professional team
-Regular visits are needed
You will be taken care of by our professional team that includes specialists in chronic kidney disease, nurses, pharmacists and nutritionists.
You may need to undergo tests so that doctors can plan the best treatment. The specific tests you can expect include:
-A glomerular filtration rate calculation is the best way to measure the kidney function based on creatinine values, age, race and sex. The GFR helps doctors determine the stage of kidney disease and plan the appropriate treatment accordingly.
-Ultrasound or CT scanner is used to diagnose certain kidney problems and urinary tracts. The image results allow doctors to examine the kidney’s size and look for possible kidney stones or tumors as well as check for kidneys’ structure and urinary tracts.
-A kidney biopsy is required in some cases in which the cause of kidney disease is unclear and doctors need specific information. Kidney tissue samples will be examined under a microscope to determine the seriousness of kidneys damage and plan the best possible treatment.
Other tests include:
-Blood pressure measurement
-Urine test for protein (proteinuria): Protein is very important to body. Normally, kidneys filter wastes out of the blood and retain protein which can be used by the body. When the kidneys’ function is abnormal, blood protein (called albumin) may leak into the urine. The test of urine for protein can be done by several methods. The increased amount of protein the urine is a sign of deteriorating kidney function and chronic kidney disease.
-Blood test for creatinine: Creatinine is a waste product in blood created by the breakdown of muscle cells. With the creatinine result from the blood test, doctors can calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) which helps determine the quality of kidney function. The lower GFR signifies that the kidneys are not working well in filtrating wastes out of the body.
Who is suitable candidate for the CKD program?
- Have chronic kidney disease with slightly diminished kidney function (less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2) or have had albumen detected in the urine (more than 500 mg/day).
- Be willing and able to commit to regular visits for the Chronic Kidney Disease Program
What are the symptoms of CKD?
The symptoms of CKD can vary greatly since kidneys are associated with many functions of our body. Some people experience mild and unspecific symptoms while many experience no symptom at all. This is why CKD often is left undiagnosed until the late stage. Watch out for the following signs and symptoms:
Fatigue and weakness
Diminished mental ability
Loss of appetite
Itchiness and skin irritation
Muscle cramps, especially at night
Swelling of legs and feet
Puffiness around the eyes (especially in the morning)
Frequent urination (especially at night)