An anal abscess is an infection of the tissue around the anus. The pus that is produced cannot be excreted and collects in a wide area. The severity and depth of each abscess varies. An anal abscess can develop into a fistula, which is an abnormal opening between the anus and the surrounding skin.
Incision and drainage is performed to help drain the pus from the abscess as well as finding any other related lesions in the local area. A portion of the pus is collected and sent for microbial analysis to help determine the causative microorganism.
Incision and drainage is the definitive and most effective cure for patients who have anorectal / perianal abscess
Your surgeon will make an incision in the skin near the anus so the pus can drain. This eases the pressure and lets the tissues heal. This can be done in a healthcare provider's office. If you have a large or deep abscess, you may need to be in the hospital and possibly have surgery under general anesthesia. In the case of a deep abscess, a catheter may need to be inserted to ensure all the pus drains out and do not cause any further complications.
THe incision and drainage is not a major procedure. It can be performed in the outpatient departent if it is deemed an emergency. Most surgery is performed in the operating room and will therefore follow the general surgircal protocol. This includes pre-ops, blood work and fasting before your procedure
Your doctor may ask you to stay in the hospital for a few days to watch for any infection. After surgery, it’s recommended you take warm (not hot) baths. Sitting in warm water will help reduce swelling and allow for more drainage the abscess. Your doctor may also prescribe antibiotics if you have a compromised immune system or if the infection has spread.
After the surgery, you may experience some of the following: -Discomfort - Pain after surgery is a normal occurence. -Abnormal bowel activity - The bowels will work normally although may take a day or two for them to start. -Bleeding - A small amount of bleeding in the first two or three days is not unexpected, particularly with defaecation. If it appears excessive then simply apply some pressure with a gauze pad for 15-20mins. -Swelling - You may experience swelling in the perianal region lasting for a few days but this will subsided of its own accord in due course.
What causes perianal abscesses?
Most perianal abscesses occur when an anal gland becomes blocked. These glands around your anus can become blocked with bacteria or fecal matter. Once blocked, they may become infected, and are eventually filled pus. Some people who have a perianal abscess also develop a a fistula. This is a connection between the anal gland and the skin. Some conditions may also be associated with increased risk of perianal abscess.
These can include: -Inflammatory bowel disease -Diabetes -Conditions or treatments causing a low immune system (such as HIV, steroid treatment or chemotherapy)
What are the symptoms of perianal abscesses?
Signs of a perianal abscess can include: -Constant pain in the bottom -Swelling close to the anus -Pus coming from the skin or anus -Fever